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The Battle of Round Mountain

November 19, 1861 in Round Mountain, Oklahoma

Union Forces Commanded by
Chief Opothleyahola
Strength Killed & Wounded Missing/Captured
~+mn~ ? 110 ?
Confederate Forces Commanded by
Col. Douglas H. Cooper
Strength Killed Wounded Missing/Captured
1,400 est 6 4 1
Conclusion: Confederate Victory
��� The Battle of Round Mountain was also known as the Battle of Round Mountains.

Opothleyoholo the Union sympathizing Indian chief known as "old Gouge" was on an escape track toward the safety of the Kansas border when his route took his party by the prominent "Round Mounds" in Indian Territory. Close on his heels were the pursuing Confederate forces of Col. Douglas Cooper.

Col. Douglas H. Cooper, Confederate commander of the Indian Department, had not been able to reconcile differences with Chief Opothleyahola, who commanded a band of Unionist Creeks and Seminoles.

On November 15, Cooper set out with about 1,400 men to either compel submission . . . or "drive him and his party from the country." His force rode up the Deep Fork of the Canadian River towards Opothleyahola's camp which they found deserted.
On November 19, Cooper learned from captured prisoners that part of Opothleyahola's band was at the Red Fork of the Arkansas River, where they were erecting a fort. Cooper's men arrived there around 4:00 P.M., and ordered a cavalry charge which discovered that Opothleyahola's band had recently abandoned the camp. The Confederates did find some stragglers beyond the camp and followed them, with the 4th Texas blundered into Opothleyahola’s warriors at the surrounding treeline at the foot of the Round Mountains. They then blundered into Opothleyahola's camp.

The Federals fired into the Confederate cavalry and, in large force, came out to attack them. They chased the Confederates back to Cooper's main force. Darkness prevented Cooper from attacking until the main Union force was within 60 yards. A short fight ensued but Opothleyahola's men broke it off and retreated back to their camp.The Union Indians promptly set the prairie grass on fire with burning bushes dragged behind their ponies.

On November 20, Cooper set out for Opothleyahola's camp but found it gone. The Confederates returned to the battle site and found among the debris of the fleeing Indians the bodies of their soldiers.
The Confederates claimed victory because Opothleyahola had left the area. This was the first of 3 encounters between Opothleyahola's Union bands and Confederate troops. The chief was forced to flee Oklahoma for Kansas at the end of the year.

The Confederate loss in the engagement was 1 captain and 5 men killed, 3 severely and 1 slightly wounded, and 1 missing. Opothleyahola lost about 110 killed and wounded.

Order of Battle

Cooper's Brigade - Col. Douglas Hancock Cooper

  • 6 companies, 1st Regiment Choctaw-Chickasaw Mounted Rifles - Maj. Mitchell Laflore
  • Detachment, 1st Creek Mounted Rifles - Col. Daniel N. McIntosh
  • Detachment, 2nd Creek Mounted Rifles - Lt. Col. Chilly McIntosh
  • Detachment, Seminole Indians - Maj. John Jumper
  • Detachment, 9th Texas Cavalry - Lt. Col. William Quayle

Creek and Seminole Indians - Chief Opothleyahola

  • Lockapoka Creeks
  • Muscogee Creeks
  • Seminoles - Halleck Tustenuggee, Billy Bowlegs
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